Sunday, January 22, 2006

Why the name Krishna?


Dear Readers,

After knowing about the various divine manifestations of Lord Shri Krishna, now there is no doubt left that He is indeed the Supreme Personality of Godhead. How beautifully Lord Krishna mentions each and every category of living and non-living entities as also abstract qualities! And amongst those He says that the most important part of that category is He Himself. The thing worth noting though is that such an open claim has never been made by anyone else ever.

In this article lets have a look at a few other shloka’s from the Bhagwad Gita which also indicate the fact of Lord Krishna’s supremacy.

In the eighth chapter of Srimad Bhagwad Gita, Lord Shri Krishna teaches the reason for the return to Samsara of those aspirants for Aisvarya (prosperity) and for the non-return to Samsara of those who have reached the Lord i.e. Him:

AaBrahmaBhuvannaloka: punaravartinOarjuna
Mamupaetya tu kauntheya punarjanma na vidyathe

Chapter 8 verse 16

Another example glorifying the Supremacy of Lord Krishna!!

Meaning: In this verse Lord Krishna says, All the worlds, from the realm of Brahma included in the Brahmananda (cosmic sphere), are spheres in which experiences conferring Aisvarya (prosperity and power) can be obtained. But they are destructible and those who attain them are subject to return. Therefore destruction i.e. return to this world by the way of rebirth and death again is unavoidable for the aspirants of Aisvarya, as the regions where it is attained perish. On the contrary there is no rebirth to those who attain Me, the Omniscient, who has true resolves, whose sport is creation, sustentation and dissolution of the entire universe, who is supremely compassionate and who is always of the same form. For these reasons there is no destruction in the case of those who attain Me.

Here indirectly, Lord Krishna explains that apart from Him, everyone and everything is subject to destruction at His mere will. Radhekrishna!!

He now elucidates the time-period settled by the Supreme Person’s will i.e. by Him in regard to the evolution and dissolution of the worlds upto the cosmic sphere of Brahma and of those who are within them.
SahasrayugaparyantamaharyadaBrahmaNo viduhu
raatrim yugasahasraantaam te aHoratravidO janaha

Those who know the duration of the day and night understand a day of Brahma to last for a thousand Yugas, and a night of Brahma to last for another thousand Yugas.

Chapter 8 verse 17

Meaning: These men who know the order of the day and night as established by My will in regard to all beings, beginning with man and ending with Brahma-they understand that what forms Brahma’s day is a unit comprising in it a thousand periods of four Yugas (Chatur-yugas) and a night is a unit of equal duration.

Avyaktadvanyaktayaha sarvaha prabhavantyaharagame
ratryagame praleeyante tatraivavyaktasangnyake

All the manifested entities come forth from the unmanifest (Avyakta) at the coming of the day of Brahma; at the coming of the night they are dissolved into the same, which is known also as the umanifest.

Chapter 8 verse 18

Meaning: Thus, at the dawn of a day of Brahma, the manifest entities existing in the three worlds, possessing body, senses, objects and places of enjoyment appear from the non-manifest (Avyakta), which is the condition of Brahma’s body in that state, and at the beginning of the night they are dissolved into the condition of the unevolved (Avyakta) which forms the body of Brahma then.

bhutagraamaha sa evayam bhutva bhutva praleeyate
ratryagamO avashaha parth prabhavatyaharagame

The same multitude of beings comes forth again and again irresistibly, and is dissolved at the coming of the night. And again it comes forth at the coming of the day.

Chapter 8 verse 19

Meaning: The same multitude of beings, controlled by Karma, evolves again and again, undergoing dissolution at the coming of the night. Again at the coming of the day it comes forth. Similarly, at the end of the life span of Brahma which consists of a hundred years of three hundred and sixty days each, each Bramha day being a thousand Chaturyugas, all the worlds including that of Brahma and Brahma himself dissolve into Me in accordance with the order thus described in the Srutis: ‘The earth is dissolved into the waters, the waters are dissolved into light’ etc., (Su.U.,2). The process of involution ends, after passing through all the other stages of dissolution, with the Avyakta, Akasa and Tamas. Therefore, for every other entity except Myself, origination and annihilation are unavoidable. So for those who seek Aisvarya (prosperity and power) birth and dissolution according to the above-mentioned time arrangement are unavoidable. But in the case of those who attain Me, there is no return again to Samasara.

(The immense duration of time, according to ancient thinkers, is as follows:
Chatur-yuga, or a unit of four yugas of Krta, Treta, Dvapara and Kali, has a cumulative duration of 4320000 human years. A thousand such periods constitute a daytime of Brahma and a similar period his night. Periodic creation and dissolution of the universe take place in these two periods respectively. One year of Brahma consists of 360 such diurnal periods. A Brahma has a life-span of 100 such years-i.e., 311,040,000,000,000
human years. At the end of it, there is a Mahapralaya, and a new Brahma comes into being. Time thus goes on endlessly.

parastasmaatu bhavO anyO avyaktO avyaktatsanatanaha
yaha sa sarveshu bhuteshu nashyatsu na vinashyati

There is, however, another non-manifest being than this non-manifest entity, which is eternal; this is not destroyed when all entities are destroyed.

Chapter 8 verse 20

avyaktOakshara ityuktastamaahu: paramaam gatim
yam prapya na nivatante taddhaam param mama

This has been called unmainfest (Avyakta) and imperishable (Aksara). This they say, is the highest goal . This is My highest abode, reaching which the selves do not return to Samasara.

Chapter 8 verse 21

Meaning: Superior, as an object of human end, to this unamanifest (Avyakta), which is inanimate Prakriti, there is another state of being, of a kind different from this, but also called Avyakta. It has only knowledge-form and is also unmanifest. It is the self, Atman. It is unmanifested because It cannot be apprehended by any means of knowledge (Pramanas). The meaning is that Its nature is unique and that It can be known only to Itself. That is it can be understood only vaguely in the ordinary ways of knowing. It is eternal, namely, ever-enduring, because It is not subject to origination and annihilation.

In the above paragraph, the features of the soul are described briefly by Lord Krishna. It is called Brahman in Hinduism. That, Krishna says is His highest abode.

Arjuna asks Lord Krishna during ‘Geeta upadesham’ to show him His cosmic form and to which Lord Krishna oblidges. The following is one verse in which Arjuna describes that cosmic form of Lord Krishna:

Pashyaami devanstva deva dehe
Sarvanstatha bHutavisheshasanghaan
Brahmanameesham kamalasanastha
Mrushishrava sarvaanugaanshrava deeptaan

I behold, O Lord, in Your body all the gods and all the diverse host of beings, Brahma. Shiva (Isa) who is in Brahma, the seers and the lustrous snakes.

Chapter 11 verse 15

Meaning: O Lord! I behold in Your body all gods and all classes of living beings as also Brahma, the four-faced ruler of the cosmic egg. So too Shiva (Isa) who is seated in the lotus-seated Brahma, meaning that Shiva abides by the directions of Brahma. So also all the seers of whom the divine seers are the foremost; and lustrous snakes like Vasuki, Taksaka etc.

This sentence is a good evidence to know that everyone and everything is within Lord Krishna.

With this we conclude our description of Lord Krishna’s supremacy. These were just a few verses from one scripture, namely, Bhagwad Gita glorifying Lord Krishna. The fact is that Lord Krishna has been glorified in many other scriptures of Hinduism. This is just a brief description of his supremacy.

Sarvam Guruvarpanam

Sarvam Krishnarpanam

Friday, January 06, 2006

Why the name Krishna?


Dear Readers,

Wish you all a very happy and prosperous new year. In this new year take a resolution to try out chanting the name of Lord Krishna just as one tries out eating something which one has never eaten before. Try having a sincere faith in Krishna that he can do nothing wrong to us and that anything that happens with us is bound to be good for us in some way or the other. Only thing being that we cant see how that thing is good for us. So try exploring each and every small incident and event as to why this happened and what does it indiacate? And please give your feedback to us. It feels good to receive the comments of the readers. So feel free to express your views.

Moving back to our articles,

Since the last two months i.e. in the last four articles, the emphasis has been on the point that Lord Krishna is the Supreme and that having worshipped Him there is no need to worship anyone else.

In the Chaitanya-charitamrita it is said that a devotee of Krishna has strong and firm faith in the understanding that if he is simply engaged in Krishna consciousness and Krishna’s transcendental loving service then he is freed from all other obligations. A pure devotee of Krishna doesn’t have to perform any of the ritualistic functions enjoined in the Vedas; nor is he required to worship any demi-gods. Being a devotee of Krishna, one is understood to have performed all kinds of Vedic rituals and all kinds of worship to demi-gods. One does not develop devotional service for Krishna by performing the Vedic ritualistic ceremonies or worshipping the demi-gods, but it should be understood that one who is engaged fully in the service of the Lord has already fulfilled all Vedic injunctions.
Diverting back to where we left the last article; here are the last few important manifestations of Lord Krishna:

Mrutyu: SarvaharshravaaHamudhbHavashrcha BhavisHataam
Keerithi Shreervakch naarinaam smrutirmedha ghrutihi kshama.

I am also death, which snatches all away. I am the origin of all that shall be born. Among women I am fame, prosperity, speech, memory, intelligence, endurance and forgiveness

Chapter 10 verse 34

Meaning: I am also death, which snatches away the life of all. Of those that shall be born I am that called birth. (Of women i.e. goddesses who are the powers of the Lord) I am prosperity (Sri); I am fame (Kirti); I am speech (Vak); I am memory (Smriti); I am intelligence (Medha); I am endurance(Dhrti); and I am forgiveness (Ksama).

bruhtsaam tatha saamnaam gayatri chhandasaamaham
maasaanaam margsHirshOahamrutunaam kusumakar:

Of Saman hymns, I am the Brhatsaman. Of meters, I am the gayatri. Of months, I am Margasirsa (Nov-Dec). And of seasons, I am the season of flowers.
Chapter 10 verse 35

Dhyutam chhalayataamasmi tejastejasvinaamHam
JayOasmi vyavasaayOasmi satravam satravavataamaham.

Of the fraudulent, I am gambling, I am the brilliance of the brilliant. I am victory, I am effort, I am the magnanimity of the magnanimous

Chapter 10 verse 36

Meaning: Of those who practise fraud with a view to defeat each other, I am the gambling such as the dice-play etc. I am the victory of those who achieve victory. I am the effort of those who make effort. I am the magnanimity of those who possess magnanimity of mind.

VrusHninaam vaasudevOasmi pandavanaam dhananjayaha
MuninaamapyaHam Vyaasaha kavinaamushana kavihi

Of Vrsnis I am Vasudeva. Of Pandavas I am Arjuna. Of sages, I am Vyasa and of seers, I am Usana (Sukra).

Chapter 10 verse 37

Meaning: Here the Supreme Vibhuti (manifestation) is that of being the son of Vasudeva. Of sons of Pandu, I am Dhananjaya or Arjuna. Of sages who perceive truth by meditation, I am Vyasa. The seers are those who are wise.

Dando damayataamasmi neetirasmi jeegishatam
maunam chaivasmi gruhanaam dnyanam dnyanavtamaham

Of those that punish, I am principle of punishment. Of those that seek victory, I am the policy. Of secrets, I am also silence. And of those who are wise, I am wisdom.

Chapter 10 verse 38

Meaning: I am the power of punishment of those who punish, if law is transgressed. In regard to those who seek victory I am policy which is the means of getting victory. Of factors associated with secrecy, I am silence. I am the wisdom of those who are wise.

Yachchaapi sarvabHutaanaam beejam tadahamarjuna
na tadasti vina yatsyaanmaya bhutam characharam.

I am also that which is the seed of all beings, O Arjuna. Nothing that moves or does not move, exists without me.

Chapter 10 verse 39
Meaning: Of all beings, in whatever condition they may exist whether manifest or not, I alone am that state. Whatever host of beings are said to exist, they do not exist without Me as their Self. The purport is that the entire host of beings in every state, is united with Me, their Self. By this He makes it clear that He, being the Self of all things, is the ground for his being denoted by everything in co-ordinate predication.

NaantOasmi mama divyaanaam vibhuteenaam paramtapa
Aesha tudHyeshataha prokto vibhutervistaro maya

There is no limit to My divine manifestations. Here the extent of such manifestations has been made in brief by Me.

Chapter 10 verse 40

Meaning: There is no limit to the divine and auspicious manifestations of My will to rule. But it has been described to some extent by Me in brief by means of a few illustrations.

So these were the important manifestations of Lord Krishna in which he Has briefly explained that in each and every category of people, gods, beings, qualities, non-living entitites, He is the residing Self.

We will look at a few other shloka's from the Bhagwad Gita realting to this same topic in our next posting.
Till then do continuous chanting. Radhekrishna!!

Sarvam Guruvarpanam
Sarvam Krishnarpanam

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